They were quick to build, a visible sign of the Normans power and by 1070, the Normans had great expertise in building them. Motte and Bailey Castles were a common design of castles in the Middle Ages, combining ease of construction with defensibility. Motte and bailey castles were fortifications that had a wooden or stone keep situated on a raised area of ground called a motte, accompanied by an enclosed courtyard, or bailey, surrounded by a protective ditch and palisade. Motte and Bailey castles were built in Britain, Ireland and France in the 11th and 12th centuries. The first Norman castles built in England were designed after the timber and earthwork castles on the Continent. Motte and bailey castles were used all over Europe. Motte and bailey castles appeared in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066. After William’s response to the rebellion in the north of England, many areas were simply too scared to rebel. Up until that point, there was little or no castle building in England. Motte and Bailey Castles Facts & Worksheets, Download Motte and Bailey Castles Worksheets, Historical background of motte and bailey castles. However, the French were unpopular with the local population and the French builders left without anything substantial being built. If some motte-and-bailey castles could be constructed in less than a month, a medium size stone castle would have taken a minimum of five years to build, while a large size stone castle … Stone castles replaced the motte and bailey castles but the stone castles also changed over time. The motte was a big earthen mound with a ditch surrounding its base. The film looks at why they were built, their strenghts and their weaknesses. Thanks to the Norman influence in southern Italy and Sicily, a small number of castles were also built there. The kings of France had little idea on how to defeat the Vikings. The motte was flattened on top in order for the keep to be constructed. So exactly how were they built? A bailey usually contained stables, a hall, workshops, a well, and a chapel. They were a true European innovation. As they were largely made of wood, motte and bailey castles were susceptible to fire during an attack, as can be seen in various scenes from the Bayeux Tapestry, which depicts the 11th-century CE Norman conquest of Britain and events leading up to it. They were used to keep the Saxons tamed. A motte is a built-up mound of land, and a bailey is an enclosed courtyard. In many senses, it was seen as bandit-country then. It is very hard to determine whether a mound is man-made or natural without excavation. The word “motte” is the French version of the Latin “mota”, it was an early word for “turf” and by the 12th century it was used to refer to the castle design itself. Why were Motte and Bailey Castles Important? This is why the English/Welsh border has so many surviving mottes near it.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'historylearningsite_co_uk-leader-1','ezslot_13',115,'0','0'])); No-one is quite sure how many motte and bailey castles were built in England by the Normans. These castles were built across northern Europe from the 10th century onwards, spreading from Normandy and Anjou in France, into the Holy Roman Empire in the 11th century. They were quick to build, a visible sign of the Normans power and by 1070, the Normans had great expertise in building them. Such defensive structures were The kings of France had little idea on how to defeat the Vikings. Up until that point, there was little or no castle building in England. These facts, alongside others, forced the noble class to forego the simple motte and bailey design and turn to more complex design principles to build the large castles that their status and people needed for economics, politics, and defense. Motte and bailey castles were very popular for almost 200 years. The bailey … No original complete motte and bailey castles exist in England, but the huge stone fortifications William started certainly are. They were relatively cheap but effective defensive fortification that could repel small attacks. It is thought that as many as 100,000 people died of starvation. It was often artificially made – it was built by piling up the earth, but sometimes it incorporated a pre-existing feature of the landscape, like a hill, for example. The stone layers were needed to strengthen the motte and to assist drainage. Motte and Bailey castles were built in Britain, Ireland and France in the 11th and 12th centuries. With the population of England seemingly subdued, William started a programme of building. It is believed that over 1000 motte and bailey castles were built in England by the Normans. Building castles then was very labour intensive. In 1069, they targeted the most obvious sign of William’s authority – the castle of York. Many of them were used as the foundations for the newly designed stone castles, and such, the motte and bailey castles morphed, and endured, for a couple of hundred years more. Motte and bailey castles became a less popular design in the mid-medieval period. When William of Normandy invaded England in 1066, he built two wooden castles in two weeks! Motte and bailey castles were only temporary features (though many mottes exist to this day) while stone keep castles were built to last. The Normans constructed these sites as administrative centres for their newly acquired kingdom, and as a way of barracking troops to maintain control over local populations. Stone castles were built taller and gave better protection against attack, fire and cold rainy weather. How were these castles built? With this new approach, the great era of the stone castles had begun. Stone castles were stronger and did not rot like wood, but they were expensive and took many years to build. Raiders would usually use this to their advantage and would often surprise the defenders inside the keep. Motte and Bailey castles were built in the 11th century just after the battle of Hastings in 1066. These structures are of northern European design, and can also be found in Denmark and Germany, but also even in southern Italy, and occasionally beyond. How have stone castles improved over the years, and why? By the time of Edward I, concentric castles were being built. William and his men were invaders and his army would have had to be on a constant guard especially in the immediate days after Hastings. Facts about Motte and Bailey Castles 3: The style of motte and bailey castle There are many countries which used motte and bailey style, especially in northern Europe, Normandy, and Britain. The Normans constructed these sites as administrative centres for their A short film about Motte and Bailey Castles. An earth mound, or motte, with a tower or lookout on top was built next to a yard, or bailey. (this was … However, this series of castle building did not cause the problem to disappear. How have stone castles improved over the years, and why? Mottes varied considerably in size, usually with the minimum height being at around 3 metres. This meant that he did not have to fight for London – and the people of London were spared their city being torched. The steep embankment on the side of the motte was known as a scarp. The motte and bailey castle Remember, William’s troops were an invading force and not exactly secure in all parts of the country. The motte was a _____ hill, which would normally be man-made. When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, he brought this castle design with him. Most of these were motte-and-bailey castles, built using forced Anglo-Saxon workers: the motte was a high mound on which a wooden tower was constructed; the bailey was the courtyard at the bottom of the mound with: living quarters, stables, workshops and perhaps a chapel. Motte and bailey castles were an early type of castle. The bailey was usually kidney-shaped to fit against a circular motte, but frequently, the terrain dictated its shape. Once the people of England had been tamed, William moved onto grander castles. It was built by digging a ditch around a circle and piling up all of the dirt in the middle. They can be found primarily in Northern France, England, Wales and Scotland – but the influence of these designs spread too to Denmark, Germany, Belgium, and other spots in Northern Europe. A single tower was built on (or partially within) the motte or earth mound while a courtyard area or bailey at the base was protected by a wooden palisade and an encircling outer ditch. Once William had firmly established his rule in England, he built huge stone keep castles. These structures consist of a hill (the motte) and a courtyard (the bailey). In these castles, there was a fortified building (the castle) on top of a man-made hill called a motte. Their biggest advantage, the fact that the primary building material was wood, became the greatest disadvantage. Facts about Motte and Bailey Castle will give you information about the first type of castle which was built in England in 1066 after the Norman conquest. It is thought that as many as 1000 Motte and Bailey castles were built in England by the Normans in the Middle Ages. Why were Motte and Bailey Castles Important? The Normans then quickly ordered the construction of many other castles to show the English that they were now in control. In order for a large tower to be built, that would accommodate the lord and his servants, castles needed bigger mottes. The Motte was a steep-sided artificial mound, built in much the same way as a sand-castles are built. He allowed the Saxon nobles to keep their land and he tried to learn English. However, building a motte was a skilled achievement. 3 The first castles built by William the Conqueror were motte and bailey castles. Motte-and-Bailey Castles In 1067, William started building the Tower of London to show everyone how powerful he was. Castles were built in Exeter, Warwick, Nottingham, Lincoln, Huntingdon, Cambridge and York. Sophisticated fire-launching techniques were designed to burn down the castles and they were used with great success. The first record of a motte and bailey castle in France appeared at the start of the 11th Century. Motte and bailey castles were first used in England by the Normans. This was their way of coping with the constant attacks by Vikings from Scandinavia. 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